The DUTCH CHOW CHOW

by - F.P.A. ODENKIRCHEN
Ontario, Canada

Written expressly for THE AMERICAN CHOW CHOW
Vol. VIII, No. V  October 1964
Revised April 1999

Minnie & Paul in Holland


CHAPTER I
 I have been asked to write an article for THE AMERICAN CHOW CHOW on the Chow Chows in Holland in the past up to the present. It is with some hesitation that I decided to do so, for where I am Dutch myself and so are 90% of my dogs, it is obvious that my opinion is somewhat biased and could easily be mistaken.
However, because of the influx of Dutch blood-lines into North America during the past few years, there seems to be a growing interest in the background of these dogs.
I will therefore try to give as concise and  complete a synopsis of our breed in Holland as I can within the limitations of this article. As the history of the  Dutch Chow is closely related with those from England and Belgium it is practically impossible to discuss one without some mention of the others. Therefore, and because many North American lines are also related to both other countries I will first go back a  into their history, and  refresh your memory.



Chinese Puzzle                                              CH. Chow VIII
         First Chow ever to be exhibited in              Imported to England by Miss Bagshaw
                England in  1880                                 Photo courtesy Prof. B. Giussani

 Although sailors had previously imported some specimens of our breed into England, there didn't seem to be much of an interest for them, at first. In 1880 the first Chow, the bitch "Chinese Puzzle", belonging to Mr. W. K. Taunton, at that time a well- known fancier of exotic breeds, was exhibited at the Crystal Palace Show. After that the breed, which had been a curiosity up to that time, gained in popularity. However, it took more than ten years before the Kennel Club granted a Championship for Chows. In 1894, a Champion certificate was awarded for the first time to Chow Vlll, an imported red male with light, nearly cream colored shadings. This dog gained 11 challenge certificates in total. The first English Chow Club was formed in 1895, and drew up the English Chow Chow standard in 1896, using Chow Vlll as their model. This era provided the well known dogs which mainly served as the origin of the breed in the Western hemisphere, i.e. Ch. Chow Vlll Singapore Boy, Ch. Blue Blood, Ch. T'ien, Ch. Blue Bell and Ch. Wiggles.
 At the start Lady GrandviIle Gordon was an enthusiastic breeder and the most successful exhibitor. After 1900 there were practically no more Chows imported from China. In the meantime, the breed became more popular in England. From this period of the Chow history we should mention: Ch. Red Craze, Ch. Shylock and Ch. Fu Chow.
 From 1900 up to the first World War, Ch. Red Craze was of  most importance. He gained 30 Challenge Certificates. After Ch. Red Craze came the equally famous Ch. Foo Kway, who was exhibited for the first time in 1914, and the black Ch. Pusa of Amwell, who gained his first Challenge Certificate in 1916.  This era produced the bitches, Ch. Pickles and Ch. Bluet.
After that came such famous dogs as Ch. Lemming and Ch. Hildewell Ba Tang. However, Ch. Akbar, bred by Miss Peck, must be considered as one of the most important Chows. He created a sensation when he was exhibited for the first time. This very massive, remarkably good proportioned dog turned out to be of great importance for the breed. Among his progeny there are several Champions. Among them the well known Int Ch. Choonam Brilliantine, which was exported to the U.S. at the age of 16 months for the fabulous amount of $9,800. He must be regarded as one of the most important dogs in the Chow Chow history of the U.S., while his progeny  in England also proved to have been of great importance for the breed.



CH. Red Craze
Photo courtesy Prof. B. Giussani

During the twenties the breed was really booming in England. The history from 1920 up to the second World War was dominated by 4 leading kennels: the "AMWELL KENNELS" of Lady Faudell Phillips, the daughter of Lady Granville Gordon, a kennel name that succeeded into the hands of Mrs. H. Needham, the daughter of Lady Faudel-Phillips.

Next the "CHOONAM KENNELS" of Mrs. V.M.A. Manooch, beyond any doubt the most successful and  the most famous Chow kennel of the whole history of the breed. Next the "MULFRA KENNELS" of Mr. William Scriven and the "ROCHOW KENNELS" of Mr. C. D. Rotch.

These kennels raised the quality level of the breed significantly and it can be said that they are responsible for the general interest in the Chow and for the transformation of the imported raw diamonds into brilliants. Several "Amwells", "Choonams", "Mulfras" and "Rochows" not only frequented the list of Champions, but many times gained Best in Show titles at the English shows.

 Many of the products of these kennels served as ambassadors of the breed to all parts of the world, and can be found in most pedigrees of our present day Chows. These four kennels were not only invaluable for their Show Stars but also produced fabulous breeding stock. To name a few:

Kennel 1
1. Ch. Pusa of Amwell
2. Ch. Li Chin of Amwell (fawn bitch)
3. Ch. Pu Yi of Amwell

Kennel 2
1. Mulfra Sarahb
2. Ch. Mulfra Connie

Kennel 3
1. Ch. Choonam Brilliantine
2. Ch. Choonam Brilliantina
3. Ch. Choonam Ping Weng
4. Ch Choonam Prunella
5. Ch Choonam  Moonbeam
6. Ch Choonam  To-To
7. Ch. Choonam Hung-Kwong
8. Ch. Choonam Shen Lung

Kennel 4
1. Ch. Rochow Akbella
2. Ch. Rochow Dragoon
3. Ch. Rochow Diadem
4. Ch.  Rochow   Adjutant

   From the above dogs there are four who even now, many years after their death, have retained their fame. Not only because of their impressive show careers, but especially because of their influence on the breed in England and on the Continent. It is still regarded as a recommendation if a Chow is a descendent of CH. CHOONAM TO-TO, CH. CHOONAM HUNG-KWONG, CH. ROCHOW DRAGOON, and CH. ROCHOW ADJUTANT. Ch. Choonam To- To was the sire of both Ch. Choonam Hung-Kwong and Ch. Rochow Adjutant, the two half brothers who differed so much in appearance, and who both played such a great part in the improvement of the breed, but at the same time put such a different stamp on their progeny. Ch. Choonam Hung-Kwong still holds the record with 44 Challenge Certificates; very robust and big, he passed on his size to many of his get..

 Ch. Rochow Adjutant, on the other hand, was rather small, but remarkably noble in head type and a complete stand-out for his perfect hind-quarters which he in turn passed on to his get. He gained the honorable nickname "The Great Little Dog".

Ch. Rochow Dragoon was a robust heavy, light shaded red male, whose get often attracted attention for their balance, heavy bone and enormous coat.
I elaborate on these four dogs especially because of the important role of their progeny
on the breed in Belgium and Holland.
   Because of the retirement of Mr. Rotch a couple of years before, and the passing of
Mrs. Mannooch during the latter part of the War, the scene in England  changed completely. Big kennels of that format are a thing of the past and the loss of experienced and purposeful breeders like these is profoundly felt. After the war the leading kennel was the "Kin-Shan Kennels" of Mrs. Lydia Ingleton with bloodlines mainly based on Ch. Rochow Adjutant. Next to her I should mention the "Adel Kennels" of Miss Buckley, the "Silverway Kennels" of Mrs. Bird and the "Barwick Kennels" of Miss Collett. At present we have to consider  the "Minhow Kennels" of Mr. Frank Watkinson, the "Ukwong Kennels" of Mr. and Mrs. Egerton, the "Hanoi Kennels" of Mrs. Dulcie Smith, and the "Junggwaw Kennels" of Mr. and Mrs. Smedley as the leading kennels in England.



 
 


Ch. Rochow Adjutant                         Ch. Choonam Moonbeam






 

CHAPTER ll

Next we take a look at the breed in Belgium as the lines in this country are even closer related to those in Holland. There have been THREE IMPORTANT BREEDERS IN BELGIUM who gained International fame. These breeders did not shy away from the sometimes exorbitant prices to acquire English Toppers and pups from the best bloodlines to boost the quality level of their kennels. In addition, the keen competition for the leadership between these kennels stimulated the desire for top quality. In the first place, there was the "T'Kell'Sie Kennels" of Madame E. du Bois de Roest. Her most important acquisition was Int. Ch. Rochow Brigadier, the son of Ch. Rochow Dragoon. Many of his get ended up in Holland. Besides this dog this breeder imported several other dogs from the Choonam kennels. A few years before Madame du Bois retired the world famous Chow expert, the Comtesse R. de Changy from the "CHANG-SHI KENNELS" in Belgium, arrived on the scene. This kennel has been by far the most successful and prominent kennel on the Continent and has favorably influenced the breed throughout the world, but especially on the Continent. The Comtesse imported many prominent dogs, such as:

1. Int. Ch. Hussar of Chunking (a son of Dragoon)
2. Int. Ch. Nansu's Susie Ann
3. Int. Ch. June Jubilee
4. Ch. Choonam Chang Tsye
5. Ch. Choonam Blue-Ee
6. Ch. Rochow Adjutant, and several others.
Ch. Rochow Adjutant was, however, beyond any doubt her best acquisition. Probably
no dog in Chow history has put such an unmistakable stamp on his progeny .



Grand Champion Chang Shi Rolly Polly
Imported and owned by
Mr. and Mrs. Gerald B. Sterling

 When in 1940, as a result of the War, the Comtesse lost her whole kennel, including Adjutant, with the exception of one single dog, the work of many years was wiped out. However, when she started to rebuild the kennel with her Adjutant son, Ch. Chang-Shi Neron and one single bitch that was saved, she bred in on Adjutant, who now really proved his value for the breed. It is therefore correct to say that the "NEW" Chang-Shi Kennels were based on Ch. Rochow Adjutant blood. This famous kennel produced a record number of Champions.
To name a few:

1.   Ch. Chang-Shi Neron
2.   Ch. Chang-Shi Nit-Chi
3.   Ch. Chang-Shi Rolly-Polly
4. Ch Chang-Shi Tosca
5.   Ch. Chang-Shi Spitfire
6.   Nat. & Int. Ch. Ch. Chang-Shi U'Kwong
7.   Ch. Chang-Shi Up-To-Date
8.   Int. Ch. Chang-Shi Hong-Kwong
9.   Ch. Chang-Shi Y Zadig
10. Ch. Chang-Shi Zygoto



CH. Chang-Shi Zygoto
A Belgium import owned by Jerry and Lucile Sterling,
Nashville Tenn.


     Several Chang-Shi dogs were awarded Best in Show on the Continent. The most striking success for this breeder was the victorious career of her products in England. The by Mrs. Needham to England imported bitch, "Chang-Shi Y Zadig" who got, as seems usual in England, "of Amwell" added to her name, gained her Championship over there and even went up for B.l.S.. at the L.K.A. Show in 1950 with more than 3000 dogs entered. Even more remarkable were the wins of her INT. & ENG. CH. CHANG-SHI U'KWONG. The Comtesse sent him to England where he created a sensation the first time he was exhibited after coming out of quarantine. He gained his Championship in short order,
won consistently and went up for B.l.S. at the W.E.L.K.S. Show (4142 dogs) in 1952. It is unnecessary to elaborate on the achievement of sending a dog to England, going through six months of a devastating quarantine and have it taking top honors against the keenest competition in a country that was considered to be the "Mecca of Chows". She repeated this feat with her famous INT. & ENG. CH. ASTOM, who although not bred by her personally, was a son of Hwang-Ti Che Kwong (a U'Kwong son)  and Chang-Shi Zia. It is therefore of interest to notice how many of the present top dogs in England show these names in their pedigrees.


Int. & Ch. Astom                                              Chang - Shi Nit - Chan

Int. Ch. Chang-Shi U'Kwong



If the "Chang-Shi Kennels" were the "Choonam Kennels" of the Continent, the "KOU-LING  KENNELS", of the third great Belgium breeder, Mr. Rene Bechet, can be regarded as the "Rochow  Kennels" of the Continent. He built his kennels up with males from the two kennels mentioned before and, in addition, imported several outstanding  English dogs. Among the Champions that this kennel  produced, we see such names as:

1. Ch. Kou-Ling Imano
2. Ch. Kou-Ling Youki
3. Int Ch. Kou-Ling Rex
4. Nat. & Int. Ch. Kou-Ling Xolsky
5. Ch. Kou-Ling Bernina
6. Int. Ch. Kou-Ling Xarai

From these NAT. & INT. CH. KOU-LING XOLSKY exported to the "Loumi-Hoeve Kennels" in Holland, proved to be by far the most important dog for the breed in general and for Holland in particular. At this stage a 6 generation pedigree of a typical Dutch Chow product will add considerable more meaning to the names mentioned in this article.
(see pedigree of Ganti-Biroe Aloes of You-Two ).
To get back to the breed in Belgium. The competition between the "Chang-Shi Kennels" and the "Kou-Ling Kennels" made the big shows in Belgium interesting and full of suspense. At some shows 8 to 10 dogs of each kennel were entered to contest every class with different dogs. It was therefore very regrettable that Mr. Bechet retired and no new kennel took his place. As a result, the big Belgium shows lost their attraction.
For a short time, there was a new very successful breeder, Mme. Smit, with her "Schild's Kennels".



Int. Ch. Schild's Xanda


Ch. Rochow Dragoon


She produced, among others, the bitch, Int. Ch. Schild's Xanda, and her famous brother, Int. Ch. Schild's Xabu. However, one can hardly see this as a independently developed kennel, because it was completely based on Chang-Shi products and combinations.



Ch. Kou Ling Bernina



Pedigree of CAN. & AM. CH. Ganti-Biroe Aloes of You-Two



 

CHARTER III

And now we come to the DUTCH CHOW CHOW'S HISTORY.....
The Chow was originally a curiosity in Holland also, and no dog fancier paid much attention to them. Previously, there had been fanciers who owned a Chow, but it wasn't until around the turn of the century that  chows were exhibited. In 1897, two
English entries were exhibited, and in 1899, the first Dutch Chow by the name of "Chinaman", owned by Mr. J. Bennink  who was also the first Dutchman to breed a
litter of registered Chows.


Nat.& Int. Ch. Kou-ling Xolski                            Int. Ch. Kou-ling Xarai


Int. Ch. Kou-ling Rex


It still took several years before the breed gained any popularity. Until 1918 there was only one Chow "Ch. Kontjoe Ljõs AIfaheim" who at completed his title. It was only after the first World War, in the twenties, that the first chow kennel of any importance emerged. It was Mrs. F.P.E. Geitel-de Lange, with her kennel "of the Golliwogs", in Velp and later in Wageningen, who can be regarded as the pioneer in Holland.

She imported several Chows from England, mainly from the "Omar Kennels", of Mrs. Bernard Cuthbert. Her most important acquisition was "Ch. Omar's Black Tower", the second Chow to gain his title. Her best product was a beautiful black male, "Ch. Ebony of the Golliwogs"  who was sold to Mr. J. Dollee, who  became a breeder himself. Shortly after Mrs. Geitel de Lange, Mrs. A. Roes-Roes in Oosterbeek near Arnhem, started her "DOORWERTH KENNELS" and was the leading Chow kennel in Holland for years. She also started out with "Omar" products, but soon switched to different bloodlines to develop her bloodline. She bought dogs of the best bloodlines of  the leading English kennels. The choice of her imports shows that she always tried to acquire dogs closely related to the English top dogs. From the Amwell Kennels, she imported three bitches, while the Rochow Kennels provided her with the male, "Rochow Samson". Of her later imports the most important were the male, "Hilsum Wundah of Quernmore", who made his show debut back in 1933, and two daughters of Ch. Rochow Dragoon: "Ch. Roebuck's Aimee" and "Dragee of Ttiweh".

The "Ttiweh Kennels", of Mrs. Amice Pitt provided her with several other dogs like "Ch. Chu Tong of Ttiweh" and "Black Pete of Ttiweh". Other important acquisitions were the robustly built daughter of Ch. Choonam Hung-Kwong, "Choonam Kin-Sha", the male, "Choonam Chu Tang" and the bitch, "T'Kell'Sie Dutchess", a daughter of Int. Ch. Rochow Brigadier. The most important products of this kennel were the bitches:

1. Ch. Angola van de Doorwerth
2. Ch. Kwan Jin van de Doorwerth
3. Ch. Wang-Mang van de Doorwerth

And the males:

4. Ch. Hoeng-Woe van de Doorwerth  and his litter brother
5. Ch. Wong-Again van de Doorwerth
6. Chu-Tong van de Doorwerth

Chu Tong van de  Doorwerth was only exhibited twice, but the son of Ch. Chu Tong of Ttiweh X Choonam Kin-Sha,  this big massive dog with heavy bone and beautiful expression proved to be an invaluable sire. He sired four Champions, among them numbers 4&5 on the above list.

The second World War not only hit Belgium very severely, it also destroyed the breed in Holland. As a result of the battle for Arnhem, Mrs. Roes-Roes was forced to evacuate after having to witness the shooting of her dogs one by one. This was a tremendous jolt for this great Dutch breeder, but also a terrible loss for the Dutch fancy. Only one pregnant bitch, "Tsing Pauw van de Doorwerth" could be saved. After the War, Mrs. Roes-Roes only bred one more litter, but with the memory of what happened to her dogs she didn't find the courage to start all over again.

However, she must be regarded as the main cause for the growing interest and quality level for our breed in Holland at that time. It is therefore interesting to know that she is the adopted aunt of Mrs. Kitty van de Wouw, who started out as Kitty van Donge with her"Kl-DONG KENNELS", which merged with Henk van de Wouw's famous "MONGOLIE KENNELS" whenthey married.

There are several breeders and fanciers from the period before the war who contributed to the fancy after Mrs. Roes-Roes started her kennel, and who should be mentioned in addition to some outstanding imports.

In 1933, Mr. Ch. J. W. Smits bred his Ch. Angola van de Doorwerth to Int. Ch. Rochow Brigadier resulting, among others, in a dog by the name of "Bear", who is of interest as the sire of:
1. Pucka Sahib von Blucherheim
2. Oediang von Blucherheim
3. Ch. Ebony von Blucherheim
All bred by Mr. G. de Bruin and excelling in their remarkable heads. Magna von Blucherheim bred back to her sire, Pucka Sahib von Blucherheim, produced the
famous black male "Ch. Matjan".

 "Kowa Acajou" was a mahogany-red English male with a beautiful head and of good breeding, imported by Louisette Geijtenbeek. Also of interest is the male bred by Miss P.L.C. Boudewijnse out of her English bitch, "Penglou Eastern Dutchess" (a daughter of Ch. Rochow Dragoon) and Ch. Rochow Adjutant. This Dutch male by the name of "Kim" left the country for England with Miss Boudewijnse as a result of the war situation.

 The dog became the possession of the Ladies Braye and Elam, and once more, we see a change of name. He turned out to be "Ransom of Padua" who became one of the more popular stud-dogs in England for some years. His litter brother "Puki" became the possession of Mrs. Roes-Roes, but this male with his wonderful pedigree, produced only one litter. Shortly before the second World War some good stock was imported from Belgium, like:

1. T'Kell'Sie Pfaffikon
2. Ch. Kou-Ling Mouchka
3. Kou-Ling Oli Thu Fu
4. Chang-Shi Houplah
5. Iky 't Song Nanouk
6. Chang-Shi A'Whang Ti



            Int. Ch. U'Milo van Majodo                                       Nat. & Int. Ch. Regina van de   Loumi-hoeve


During the first war years there was hardly any activity, which explains a couple of generations without Champions in the pedigrees of most Dutch dogs. The only thing of interest is the creation of the "Dutch Chow Chow Club", on October 26, 1941, in Utrecht. Before that time the kennel club classified the Chow as a Chinese Keeshond, and therefore Chow Fanciers belonged to the "Keeshonden Club". Mrs. M. Kloos of the "Woe-Kau Kennels", was to the first secretary of this Club. This breeder is of major importance to our kennel, because she was my wife's grandmother, which seems to be   reason enough for us  having more than one Chow.

During the latter part of the war and the first years after the war, our breed had the misfortune of becoming extremely popular. The doubtful title of "fashion-dog" coincided with great demand, high prices and an overnight explosion of breeders and Chows. The fatal results of many fly by night matings came quick, and it was a blessing for the breed when mother "Fashion" turned away from it. A small group of serious fanciers was left, who produced good stock again after a few years. Only a few dogs from the old strains were left after the war.

When the infrastructure was restored, Dutch breeders had the good fortune of profiting from outstanding stock of kennels in earlier liberated Belgium, who had a head start in rebuilding their stock. A few good bitches were mated to Belgium males and several good pups were imported. Therefore, we have to conclude that the post-war Dutch Chows were mainly founded on Belgian, and  indirectly on English bloodlines. The major imports
from the period shortly after the war are:



 
 


Ch. Tzar of Junggwaw                                    Taiwan Lahore


Ch. Ki-Dong King                                          King van Mongolie
 
 


Nat. & Int. Ch. Emperor v. d. Tongelreep                                    I'Ming v. d. Tongelreep


1. CH. CHANG-SHI UP-TO-DATE
2. KOU-LING UMATSU
3. NAT. & INT. CH. KOU-LING XOLSKY

During the fifties, the Dutch scene was dominated by six kennels:

(I) The "LOUMI-HOEVE KENNELS" of Lou and Miep Nuyen was by far the largest kennel with approximately 40 dogs. Their most important dog was the import NAT. & INT. CH. KOU-LING XOLSKY. This dog dominates the pedigrees of all post-war continental Chows, which was the result of a combination of circumstances.
Lou Nuyen was a representative of one of the large Dutch breweries and took his "pride" with him on many of his business trips throughout the Continent, which resulted in 53 Challenge Certificates and many Xolsky litters. This dog was relatively small, extremely impressive and excelled in his outstanding head, which he passed on quite dominantly. Of his get the most important were:

1. KING VAN MONGOLIE
2. Int. Ch. U'Milo van Majodo
3. Ch. Ki-Dong Cheng-Wong
4. Za-chou van Majodo
5. U'Kwa van Majodo

Through a program of intensive inbreeding on Xolsky, the "Loumi-Hoeve" dogs excelled for their conformity in type and disposition. If I had to pick their most striking characteristics, I would say without hesitation "disposition" and the "perfect ear". To me, they seem to have the perfect Chinese character: very aloof, majestic, seemingly bashful about any sign of affection, which is only shown once In a while when too much love has been held back and some of it has to find a way out. As to the ears, they are very small and thick, beautifully rounded at the tips and slightly tilted forwards.

The extreme inbreeding on Xolsky also had its adverse effects, as for instance, size. Many of the Loumi-Hoeve dogs were rather small, a feature positively inherited through inbreeding on Xolsky. Around 1957, some new blood was brought in from England through the "Hanoi" and "Junggwaw" Kennels, which resulted in an immediate improvement. However, since Lou Nuyen passed away some three years ago, the kennels have been  reduced considerably.



Ch. Shao Ying Tjio v. Mongolie                   Ch. Mouchka v. Mongolie


Int. Ch. Pei Whang's Yang Moi                                                       V.T.L.R.
                                                                        Ch. Woolly v. Majodo and son
                                                                  Ch. Man-Chu v. Mongolie

Kwan-Ti v. d. Tongelreep                                         Quan v. Majodo


Nat. & Int. Ch. Kai-Men-Ti Liweng                       Nat. & Int. Ch. Wamchow Goe-Neng

Wamchow Biyanka


Nat. & Int. Ch. Wamchow Che-Foo


(II) The "Kl-DONG KENNELS" of Kitty van Donge, who got her first dog, "Adlinda van de Doorwerth", from her aunt Mrs. Roes-Roes, in 1938. She bred her first Champion, "Ch. Kl-DONG KING" in 1946, who was sired by CHANG-SHI NOCH-KA, (a dog who  proved to be one of the most important stud-dogs after the war, since he was  the sire of Int. & Eng. Ch. Chang-Shi U'Kwong and the grandsire of Nat. & Int. Ch. Kou-Ling Xolsky as well).

At eleven years of age, Ch. Ki-Dong King, who resembled his half-brother Int. & Eng. Ch. Chang-Shi U'Kwong  in many ways, still won the 1957 Club show  under the English judge, Mr. A.O. Grindiey. This can be regarded as a great accomplishment in view of his age and a large entry of dogs at a time when the Dutch Chow quality enjoyed its peak. On this occasion, Mr. Grindley said, among other things, that he wished King had been entered in the National Dog Show in Birmingham  the week before (approx. 3500 entries) as he would have awarded him the B.l.S. title.

Another Ki-Dong product of note was, CH. Kl - DONG CHENG-WONG again out of "Adlinda van de Doorwerth" but now with Xolsky as sire. In 1949, Kitty married Henk
van de Wouw, and her dogs became part of his:

(III) "MONGOLIE KENNELS". This merger proved to be a very successful one as it produced, what I often generalizing refer  as the  "Mongolie strain" (see diagram).
Henk purchased his first Chow (black) from the "Kou-Ling Kennels" in 1937, followed by a couple of "T'Kell'Sie" Champions in 1940. Although the Mongolie Kennel is moderate in size (10-20 dogs) it is hard to choose their best dogs, as for instance in 1957, they had 12 Chows of which 9 were Champions and International Champions, while among the 3
non-Champions they counted  the incomparable "KING VAN MONGOLIE" ((Prinsje), who is regarded by many breeders the world over, including ourselves, as coming closer to the ideal specimen, than any chow to date. If I had to choose it would therefore be "Prinsje". Among the dogs he sired, we count:



Da- Lai v. Mongolie                                    Ho-Ty v. Meh-Thue


Yongchow's Gengis-Khan                                     Yongchow's Biroe


1. Nat. & Int. Ch. Emperor van de Tongelreep
2. Ch. Man-Chu van Mongolie
3. Yongchow's Biroe  and his litter brother
4. Ch. Yongchow's Ghengis Khan
5. Ch. Prins Again van Mongolie
6. Ch. Favourite van de Tongelreep
7. Gy-Yang van de Tongelreep
8. Ch. Fy-Yong van de Tongelreep

Listing some of the most important dogs of that kennel, we should
mention also the bitches:-
1. Nat. & Int. Ch. Pei-Whang's Yang-Moi
2. Ch. Wooly van Majodo
3. Ch. Chang-Shi Up-To-Date
4. Ch. Shao Ying Tjio van Mongolie
5. Wamchow Channy

and the males:
6. Ch. Ki-Dong-King
7. Ch. Man-Chu van Mongolie

I must say that this kennel with its fabulous dogs has been the spark for our own kennels and has been a living example of what can be accomplished. It proved beyond any doubt that the highest perfection can be reached in a moderate size kennel, especially when this kennel is forced through financial necessity to weed out the dead-wood and retain only the best.

(IV) The "TONGELREEP KENNELS" of Mr. L. G.M. van den Broek, the President of the Dutch Chow Chow Club, has allways been somewaht smaller, with approximately 6 dogs, in addition tosome dogs which are planned as a security.   Again we see a relatively small number of dogs coincide with a tremendous average and top quality level. Where Henk van de Wouw is the great theoritician, we find Mr. van den Broek a shrewd and practical man, with an a excellent eye for a potential pup, who never lets prejudice interfere with the selection of his dogs. Consequently, this kennel is the most stable of them all. It has never reached the Mongolie fame, but never had any great fluctuation of quality either. Mr. van den Broek is  therefore a destabilizing factor in the Dutch Chow Chow world. Reliable and capable, he is responsible for much of the continuity of the quality level. As the most important dogs of this kennel, we should mention:
the males:
1. NAT. & INT. CH. EMPEROR van de TONGELREEP
2. Dalai van Mongolie
3. Ch. Kwan-Ti van de Tongelreep



 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 


 and the females:
4. Ch. Mouch-Ka van Mongolie
5. Gy-Yang van de Tongelreep

(V) The "MAJODO KENNELS" from Mr. and Mrs. J.J. Doll, like the Tongelreep Kennels
is rather small but of continuous high quality. Their most important products
 are the males:
1.  Za-Chou van Majodo
2. Ch. Xilla van Majodo
3. Alwin van Majodo

 and the females:
4. Ch. Woolly van Majodo
5. Quan van Majodo
6. U'Kwa van Majodo

This kennel with the four previous ones dominated the post-war scene and contributed, through close cooperation with each other, to the magnificent quality in the fifties. However, this kennel is inactive now and will shortly disappear from the scene.

(VI) The "KAI-MEN-TI KENNELS" of Mrs. H.B. Wachholtz-Schneidt has existed for approximately 22 years and works independently from the others. It is based on
Choonam bloodlines and more recently on U'Kwong, Neron and Adjutant blood.
 

The most prominent dog of this kennel is:-"NAT. & INT. CH. KAI-MEN-TI LIWENG". This kennel also owes its success to a program of vigorous inbreeding, mainly on Liweng.
Its most important products after Liweng are:
1. Int. Ch. Beauty
2. Int. & French Ch. Kai-Men-Ti Tai-Yun
3. Int. & German Ch. Kai-Men-Ti Wuniang
4. Nat. & Int. Ch. Wang-Wei-Chou King

In the late fifties and early sixties, we see the emergence of some small but potential kennels like the "WAMCHOW KENNELS" of Wil de Jeu, the "HOANG-HO KENNELS "
of Mr. and Mrs. H.J. Goorkate, and the "YOU-TWO KENNELS" of Miss Martha Visser.

On the following page is an unusual diagram which will connect some of the leading bloodlines in Europe and North America. Under each name you will find another one between brackets which will be the dam or sire of that particular dog depending on
the sex of the immediate parent in its line.

Finally we come to a question which I have often been asked:

"How do the Dutch breeders succeed in producing such good products consistently with such a uniformity of type?" -This is a question with a complex answer, as it is for a combination of reasons which I would list as follows:

1. System.
2. Discipline
3. Dedication.

1. The SYSTEM of selecting the best products is by far superior to the North American point system and creates a favorable climate for selective breeding and inbreeding on the very FEW top specimens, which in turn creates a great deal of uniformity. Lets take a look at some very basic differences with our North American system:



 
 



CH. XillA v. Majodo


(a) Breeding is not big business in Holland, just a hobby costly and therefore
     eliminates those people who are not dedicated to the interest of the breed
    or are prepared to lose their shirt with it, very quickly.

(b) There are hardly any all-breed judges, as it is much too difficult to acquire all the
     necessary qualifications. To qualify for a license, one has to follow an A.K.K. course
     which takes a year and is followed by  thorough written and oral examinations.
     This is only the first step, as now  one has to get an apprenticeship with "The" breed
     Club of the specific breed  one wants to qualify for. This apprenticeship is completed
     with a hands-on exam in the form of a mock show with carefully selected dogs not
     normally exhibited, good specimen as  well as some with hidden flaws.
     The examiners are representatives of the Breed Club, the Agricultural College and
     the Kennel Club. The candidate has to discuss every dog exhibited and explain the
     reason for his placings.

(c) At Championship Shows approximately 40 judges in 20 rings judge 120 breeds,
    everyone being a qualified expert on every breed he or she judges.

(d) Every dog judged, has to be discussed and flaws and merits explained, inincluding
      the reason of it's placemaent. The judges comments are published in the official
      Kennel Club Magazine.

(e) In each Show there are six classes, three for each sex, in which dogs can be entered:
     1. Open class, for all dogs older than 9 months
     2. Bred by Exhibitor class, for all dogs older than 9 months.
     3. Junior class, for dogs 9-18 months old. The judge has to subdivide the entries in
     every class into four quality groups: "Excellent", "Very Good", "Good", and
    "Moderate" and subsequently place each dog in these quality groups in order of merit.

Only the best dog of the "Excellent" Group of each class, if available, may compete for Best of Sex and a C.A.C. (National Challenge Certificate) and a C.A.C.I.B. (Intentional Challenge Certificate) if made available by the F.C.I., and the dog is at least 15 months old and is worthy of one or the other Challenge Certificate in the opinion of the judge. The best specimen of each sex then competes for Best of Breed. As there is only a handful of Championship Shows every year, a dog needs three C.A.C's under three different judges for his National Title and four C.A.C.l.B's in three different countries under three different judges for his International Title. Taking into account  that Challenge Certificates at Championship Shows are far from automatic, one can be sure that there will be few Champions, but that dogs with a title are "True" Champions. From this system it is also clear that the size of an entry does not influence the progress towards a title. In other words, an outstanding dog will gain his title (s), but the mediocre one never will, irrespective of the size of the entries at the shows. Besides, the requirement that a dog has to be a minimum of 15 months old before it can compete for any Challenge Certificate, and  the last Challenge Certificate has to be gained after the dog has reached the age of 27 months, insures that no pup or young dog can gate crash his way to a title, but has to prove his quality as a mature specimen.

2. DISCIPLINE. The Kennel Club consists of 9 members elected into office for 4 years. Every 2 years, 3 members step down. The Kennel Club governs all Breed clubs, Stud books, dog show Rules and Registrations including entry fees, benching etc., administration of justice and is in session throughout the year. It has great authority and uses its powers without hesitation, impartially and with great effect. They have free entry to all shows, meetings, books etc., and can suspend or for instance stop a show immediately, if serious irregularities are suspected.  (Note: The conditions are identical to those of the American Kennel Club with regard to the governing powers. Ed.)

They hold court every week, summon parties to be heard and administer justice.
The kennel club in turn executes its powers along the lines as agreed upon by the F.C.I. The breed clubs falling under the jurisdiction of the Kennel Club still have some autonomy, as for instance every  litter registration and registration of individual dogs is processed and verified by the registrar of the breed club. This all creates a great deal of order, deals very severely with irregularities while promoting a uniformity of purpose.

3. DEDICATION. It is clear from the preceding notes  that in Holland dog breeding is much too demanding, expensive and regulated, to be attractive to many,  let alone on a commercial basis.  It will therefore allways remain a challenge for anyone who  wants to become a serious breeder. The ones that succeeded could do so only through great dedication and an ability to bounce back after frequent set-backs.


NAT. & INT. CH.. KWANG-WU of l.IANG-MING-KEOU


SUMMARY

The Dutch type of Chow from after the war has been developed from Belgiam, and indirectly, from prewar English stock. As a result of close cooperation of a small handful of able and dedicated breeders who had the good fortune of having the opportunity to access magnificent Belgian stock, and assisted by a system whereby careful selection of really outstanding specimen by Chow specialists, encouraged inbreeding on a mere handful of dogs by the majority of the fancy, a magnificent bloodline has been developed of which the Nat. & Int. Ch. Kou-Ling Xolsky, - King van Mongolie,and  Nat. & Int. Ch. Emperor van de Tongelreep  strain has become the most famous.
Presently a slight recession is experienced as a result of heavy exports to all parts of the world and the importation of some dogs of lesser quality, who were never the less needed to offset some faws which threatened to become common place as a result of too vigorous an inbreeding program. It seems justified to expect that the Dutch breeders will be able to turn this around  and head once more to new successes.
I will conclude by crediting Henk and Kitty van de Wouw for most of the information on the early history, which I learned from a pamphlet they put out back in 1954.... End.




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